Research

Raphael’s energy research has involved funding from UK national research councils (the ESRC and the EPSRC), the UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (ERA-ACTOM), the British Academy and currently through the European Commission Jean Monnet Professorship 2019-2022. He has given professional expert advice on energy law and policy issues (low-carbon energy and electricity systems) to the EU, UN, Commonwealth Secretariat, World Bank, and various international thinktanks – he currently serves on the UNECE Group of Experts on Cleaner Electricity Systems. More recently, he has worked on low carbon energy projects for the 10 Member States of the ASEAN Center for Energy (2021); produced policy reports on the energy transition and energy finance for the 54 Member States of the Commonwealth (2021), advised Nigerian Ministries on oil and gas (2019), law and Colombian professionals on climate and green finance (2019 & 2021).

He is a reviewer for the next IPCC Report. Raphael is also the Consulting Editor of the current Halsbury’s Laws of England volumes on Energy Law (the leading practitioner energy law series). Raphael is co-editor of the forthcoming Oxford University Press Handbook for International Energy Law and Editor-in-Chief of the Edinburgh University Press journal Global Energy Law & Sustainability. Raphael is also on the Editorial Board of the International Energy Law Review, the Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review and law, energy law and energy policy journals in Russia, India and Indonesia.

Research Publications

Statement of Publications

Books

  1. Heffron, R. J. 2021. Achieving a Just Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy. Springer: Heidelberg, Germany. (+900 copies sold)
  2. Heffron, R. J. 2021. The Challenge for Energy Justice: Correcting Human Rights Abuses. Springer: Heidelberg, Germany. (+700 copies sold)
  3. Heffron, R. J. 2021. (2nd Edition). Energy Law: An Introduction. Springer: Heidelberg, Germany. *Italian translation – October 2021 (+1.7k copies sold)
  4. Southalan, J., Heffron, R. J., Safa’at, R., Nurjaya, I. N., and Dwi Qurbani, I. 2018. Reformulation of Law and Policy On Energy and Mining Management. Atlantis Press: Amsterdam, Paris, and Beijing. (Open Access).
  5. Heffron R. J. (Consulting Editor). 5th Edition. 2018. Halsbury’s Laws of England Energy Law: Volumes 42 (Energy Infrastructure and Supply), 43 (Energy Markets & Providers), and 44 (Energy Efficiency & Sustainability). LexisNexis, UK
  6. Cameron, P. D. and Heffron, R. J. (editors). 2016. (2nd Edition) Legal Aspects of EU Energy Regulation. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK.
  7. Heffron R.J., and Little G. (Eds). 2016. Delivering Energy Law and Policy in the EU and US: A Reader. Edinburgh University Press: UK.
    • Sold out of First Print run, on second print run.
  8. Heffron. R. J. 2015. Energy Law. Roundhall, Sweet & Maxwell – Thomson Reuters: Dublin, Ireland
    • quotes from Book reviews: (1) ‘will be welcomed by students, lawyers and members of the judiciary alike for its clear and effective approach to the area’; (2) ‘it is suggested that it is likely that it will not be too long before there will be demands for a second edition.’; and (3)‘Dr Heffron offers a detailed account of energy law and policy. However, he does not stop at black-letter law but also provides a much-needed and thoughtful analysis of the potential areas of improvement.’
  9. Heffron, R. J. 2015. Energy Law: An Introduction. Springer: Heidelberg, Germany.
    • Persian and Chinese translation (September 2017), Spanish and Arabic (2021); over 4500             downloads and hardcopies sold to-date (English language version)
  10. Heffron. R. J. 2015. Deconstructing Energy Law and Policy: The Case of Nuclear Energy. Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

Journal Peer Review Publications

Published:

  1. Heffron, R. J. 2022. Applying Energy Justice into the Energy Transition. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 156, 111936.
  2. Heffron, R. J. Kornier, M-F., Sumarno, T., Wagner, J., Weibelzahl, M. and Fridgen, G. 2022. How different electricity pricing systems affect the energy trilemma: Assessing Indonesia’s electricity market transition. Energy Economics, 107, 105663.
  3. Sokolowski, M. M. and Heffron, R. J. 2022. Defining and conceptualising energy policy failure: The when, where, why, and how. Energy Policy, 161, 112745
  4. Droubi, S., Heffron, R. J. and McCauley, D. 2022. A critical review of energy democracy: A failure to deliver justice? Energy Research & Social Science, 86, 102444.
  5. Heffron, R. J. et al. 2021. The emergence of the ‘social licence to operate’ in the extractive industries? Resources Policy, 74, 101272
  6. Heffron, R.J. 2021. Energy multinationals challenged by the growth of human rights. Nature Energy (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-021-00906-6
  7. Heffron, R. J. 2021. ‘Inclusive Energy Transition’, Commonwealth Sustainable Energy Transition Series 2021/01, Commonwealth Secretariat, London.
  8. Hazrati, M. and Heffron, R. J. 2021. Conceptualising restorative justice in the energy transition: changing the perspectives of fossil fuels. Energy Research and Social Science, 78, 102115.
  9. Alomari, M. A. and Heffron, R. J. 2021. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Middle Eastern Experience. Journal of Environmental Law, 2021, Advance Access.
  10. R. Heffron, S. Halbrugge, M. Körner, N.A. Obeng-Darko, T. Sumarno, J. Wagner, M. Weibelzahl. 2021. Justice in Solar Energy Development. Solar Energy, 218, 68-75.
  11. R. Heffron, M. Körner, T. Sumarno, J. Wagner, M. Weibelzahl, & G. Fridgen. 2021. The Cost of No Reform: Assessing the Impact of Different Electricity Pricing Regimes on Indonesia’s Energy Trilemma. Asian Development Bank Working Paper Series.
  12. R. Heffron, R Connor, P Crossley, V López-Ibor Mayor, K Talus & J Tomain. 2021. The identification and impact of justice risks to commercial risks in the energy sector: post COVID-19 and for the energy transition. Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, DOI: 10.1080/02646811.2021.1874148
  13. Heffron, R., Körner, M., Schopf, M., Wagner, J., and Weibelzahl, M. 2021. The role of flexibility in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond: Contributing to a sustainable and resilient energy future in Europe. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 140 (110743)
  14. Qurbani, I. D., Heffron, R. J. and Rifano, A. T. S. 2021. Justice and critical mineral development in Indonesia and across ASEAN. The Extractives Industry and Society, 8 (1), 355-362.
  15. Alomari, M. A. and Heffron, R. J. 2021. Utilising law in the transition of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to a low-carbon economy. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 39, 107-118.
  16. Heffron, R., Körner, M., Wagner, J., Weibelzahl, M., Fridgen, G., 2020. Industrial demandside flexibility: A key element of a just energy transition and industrial development. Applied Energy, 269 (115026)
  17. Heffron, R. J. and Sheehan, J. 2020. Rethinking international taxation and energy policy post COVID-19 and the financial crisis for developing countries. Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, 38 (4), 465-473.
  18. Heffron, R. J. 2020. The Role of Justice in Developing Critical Minerals. The Extractives Industry and Society, 7 (3), 855-863.
  19. McCauley, D., Ramasar, V., Heffron, R. J., Sovacool, B. K., Mebratu, D. & Mundaca, L. 2019. Energy justice in the transition to low carbon energy systems: Exploring key themes in interdisciplinary research. Applied Energy. 233-234, p. 916-921.
  20. Heffron, R. J. 2018. The application of distributive justice to energy taxation utilising sovereign wealth funds. Energy Policy, 122, 649-654.
  21. Heffron, R. J. 2018. The Just Transition towards a Low-Carbon Economy. Renewable Energy Law and Policy, 8 (4), 39-41.
  22. Heffron, R. J., McCauley, D. and Zarazua de Rubens, G. 2018. Balancing the Energy Trilemma through the Energy Justice Metric. Applied Energy, 229, 1191-1201.
  23. Heffron, R. J. et al. 2018. The emergence of the ‘social licence to operate’ in the extractive industries? Resources Policy, Available –https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2018.09.012
  24. Heffron, R. J., Downes, L., Bysveen, M., Brakstad, E. V., Tom Mikunda, T., Neele, F., Eickhoff, C., Hanstock, D. and Schumann, D.  2018. Reducing legal risk for CO2 transport for carbon capture and storage in the EU. International Energy Law Review, 6, 192-205. ). (Available via Westlaw).
  25. Heffron, R. J., Ronne, A., Bradbrook, A., Tomain, J. P. and Talus, K. 2018. A Treatise for Energy Law. Journal of World Energy Law & Business, 11 (1), 34-48.
  26. McCauley, D., Brown, A., Rehner, R., Heffron, R. & van de Graaff, S.  2018. Energy justice and policy change: An historical political analysis of the German nuclear phase-out. Applied Energy. 228, p. 317-323
  27. Heffron, R. J., Downes, L., Bysveen, M., Brakstad, E. V., Tom Mikunda, T., Neele, F., Eickhoff, C., Hanstock, D. and Schumann, D.  2018. Ownership, risk and the law for a CO2  transport network for carbon capture and storage in the European Union. Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, DOI: 10.1080/02646811.2018.1442215
  28. Heffron, R. J. 2018. Energy law for decommissioning in the energy sector in the 21st century. Journal of World Energy Law & Business, 11 (3), 189-195.
  29. Connor, R., Heffron, R. J., Khan, A.A. and Perkins, E. 2018. Legal Strategies for the Mitigation of Risk for Energy Infrastructure Projects. Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, 20 pages
  30. McCauley, D. and Heffron, R. J. 2018. Just transition: Integrating climate, energy and environmental justice. Energy Policy, 119, 1-7.
  31. Heffron, R. J., Downes, L., Bysveen, M., Brakstad, E. V., Tom Mikunda, T., Neele, F., Eickhoff, C., Hanstock, D. and Diana Schumann, D. 2018. Three Layers of energy law for examining CO2 transport for carbon-capture storage. Journal of World Energy Law & Business, 11 (2), 93-115.
  32. Heffron R. J. and McCauley, D. 2018. What is the ‘Just Transition’? Geoforum, 88, 74-77.
  33. Heffron R. J. et al. 2017. The Global Future of Energy Law. International Energy Law Review, 8, 291-302. (Translated and published in Chinese).(Available via Westlaw)
  34. Nuttall, W. J., Ashley, S. and Heffron, R. J. 2017. Compensating for severe nuclear accidents: expert elucidation. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 112, 131-142.
  35. Heffron, R. J. & McCauley, D. 2017. The concept of energy justice across the disciplines. Energy Policy, 105, 658-667.
  36. Jakobsen Jana Poplsteinova and others, 2017. Developing a Pilot Case and Modelling the Development of a Large European CO2 Transport Infrastructure -The GATEWAY H2020 Project. Energy Procedia, 6835-6843.
  37. Heffron, R. J. and McManus, F. 2016. Environmental Impact Assessment. Environmental Law in Scotland, 20, 1-28. (Available via Westlaw)
  38. Heffron, R. J. 2016. The Global Future of Energy Law. International Energy Law Review, 7, 290- 295. (Available via Westlaw)
  39. Sovacool, B, Heffron, R. J., McCauley, D & Goldthau, A. 2016. Energy decisions reframed as justice and ethical concerns. Nature Energy, 1, 16024.
  40. Heffron, R. J., Roberts, P., Cameron, P. and Johnston, A. 2016. A Review of Energy Law Education in the UK. Journal of World Energy Law and Business, 9 (5), 346-356.
  41. Heffron, R., Ashley, S. and Nuttall, W. J. 2016. The Global Nuclear Liability Regime Post Fukushima Daiichi. Progress in Nuclear Energy 90 (July 2016), 1-10.
  42. Heffron, R. J. and Talus. K. 2016. The Evolution of Energy Law and Energy Jurisprudence: Insights for Energy Analysts and Researchers. Energy Research and Social Science, 19, 1-10. (Translated and published in Chinese).
  43. Heffron, R. J. and Talus. K. 2016. The development of energy law in the 21st century: a paradigm shift? Journal of World Energy Law and Business, 9 (3), 189-202.
  44. Jenkins, K, McCauley, D , Heffron, R, Stephan, H & Rehner, R. 2016. Energy justice: a conceptual review. Energy Research and Social Science, 11, 174-182.
  45. McCauley, D, Heffron, R, Pavlenko, M, Rehner, RWM & Holmes, RT 2016, ‘Energy justice in the Arctic: implications for energy infrastructural development‘ Energy Research and Social Science, vol 17, pp. 56-65.
  46. Heffron RJ, McCauley D and Sovacool BK. 2015. Resolving Society’s Energy Trilemma through the Energy Justice Metric’Energy Policy, 87, 168-176.
  47. Heffron, R. J. 2014. Energy Subsidy Reporting: its creation and enforcement through International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). European Company Law, 11 (2), 133-136. (Available via Westlaw)
  48. Heffron, R. J. and McCauley, D. 2014. Achieving Sustainable Supply Chains through Energy Justice, Applied Energy, 123, 435-437.
  49. Heffron, R. J. and Haynes, P. J. 2014. Challenges to the Aarhus Convention – Public Participation in the Energy Planning Process in the United Kingdom: Framing the Debate. Journal of Contemporary European Research. 10 (2), 236-247.
  50. Heffron, R. J. 2014. Leadership and Policy Delivery in Regeneration Practice in a Time of Austerity. Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, 7 (3), 243-250.
  51. Heffron, R. J. 2013. Nuclear Energy Policy in the United States 1990-2010: A Federal or State Responsibility. Energy Policy, 64, 254-266.
  52. Heffron, R. J. 2013. Accommodating Energy Law within Environmental Law: An Irish Exploration. Irish Planning and Environmental Law, 20 (2), 56-64. (Available via Westlaw)
  53. Heffron, R. J. 2013. Lessons for Nuclear New Build in the USA 1990-2010: A Three State Analysis. Technology Forecasting and Social Change, 80 (5), 876-892.
  54. Heffron, R. J. 2013. “The Need for Proactive over Reactive Nuclear Law for the International Nuclear Industry”. Oil, Gas and Energy Law, 11 (1), 1-21. (Available via OGEL)
  55. Heffron, R. J. 2013. The Application of Contrast Explanation to Energy Policy Research: UK Nuclear Energy Policy 2002-2012. Energy Policy, 55, 602-616.
  56. McCauley, D., Heffron, R. J. Stephan, H. and Jenkins, K. 2013. Advancing Energy Justice: The triumvirate of tenets. International Energy Law Review, 32 (3), 107-110. (Available via Westlaw)
  57. Heffron, J. J. A. and Heffron, R. J. 2013. Institutional Governance within Irish Higher Education Institutions. Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, 102 (405), 68-80. (Available via JSTOR).
  58. Heffron, R. J. and Haynes, P. J. 2012. Striking a statutory balance: constant change in residential leases versus static change in commercial leases in the UK. The Conveyancer and Property Law Journal, 76 (3), 195-206. (Available via Westlaw)
  59. Heffron, R. J. and Kallemets, K. 2012. The Prospects of Nuclear Energy: Estonia. Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 6 (4), 495-503.
  60. Heffron, R. J. 2012. Lessons from the United States: For Legal Change and Delay in Energy Law in the United Kingdom. International Energy Law Review, 2012, 31 (2) 71-77. (Available via Westlaw)
  61. Heffron, R. J. 2012. A Justification for Redefining Competition Policy in the 21st Century in the UK. Interdisciplinary Journal of Economics and Business Law, 1 (3), 74-117.
  62. Heffron, R. J. 2012. Romanian Nuclear New Build: Progress Amidst Turbulence. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 56, 43-60.
  63. Heffron, R. J. and Haynes, P. J. 2011. Improving Urban Regeneration in the UK: Lessons from the Developing World. Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, 5 (1), 65-74.